露天煤矿冬季坑底粉尘污染特征及影响因素

1)中国矿业大学露天矿山高新技术研究中心,江苏徐州 221116; 2)中国神华能源股份有限公司哈尔乌素露天煤矿,内蒙古鄂尔多斯 017100

露天开采; 露天矿; 粉尘颗粒物; 粉尘浓度; 污染水平; 气象因子; 相关性分析; 主成分分析; 回归分析; 多元统计

Pollution characteristics and influencing factors of dust at the bottom of open-pit coal mine in winter
LUO Huaiting1, 2, ZHOU Wei1, LIU Yu2, WANG Zhiming1, SHI Xuyang1, DING Xiaohua1, and LU Xiang1

1)High-Tech Research Center for Open Pit Mines, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province, P.R.China2)Haerwusu Open-Pit Coal Mine, China Shenhua Energy Co. Ltd., Ordos 017100, Inner Mongolia, P.R.China

open pit mining; open pit mine; dust particulate matter; dust density; pollution levels; meteorological factors; analysis of correlation; main components analysis; regression malysis; multivariate statistics

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1249.2020.06637

备注

为揭示中国北方干旱地区冬季低温条件下颗粒物的污染特征,为露天矿山粉尘污染物防治提供理论依据,以内蒙古哈尔乌素露天煤矿为研究地点,通过矿坑布设的2个监测点对冬季粉尘颗粒的物质量浓度、风速及温湿度和温差多项环境指标进行监测,运用多元统计学方法分析坑矿低温条件下一周内的粉尘颗粒物变化特征及其与气象因素关系.结果表明,检测时间段内露天矿坑的颗粒物平均质量浓度未超过国家环境空气质量标准(GB 3095—2012)的2级标准限值,但部分时间内超过了1级标准限值; 湿度、温度、风速、温差(逆温强度)均与颗粒物质量浓度呈正相关,其中,湿度正相关最为显著; 低温条件下,气象因子对坑底颗粒物质量浓度影响显著程度从高到低为:湿度>温度>温差(逆温强度); 小粒径颗粒物对环境因素敏感性更高.气象因素对粉尘颗粒物的污染扩散影响大,因此,露天矿山冬季开采强度可结合气象条件进行调整,以降低坑底粉尘污染水平.

Haerwusu open-pit coal mine in Inner Mongolia has serious pollution of dust particles at the bottom of the pit in winter, which has posed great impacts on production and the surrounding environment. This article aims to reveal the characteristics of particulate pollution under low temperature in the arid areas of northern China in winter and provide the foundation for the prevention and control of dust pollution in open-pit mines. We took the Haerwusu open-pit coal mine as the research site, monitored a number of environmental indicators including the mass concentration of dust particles, wind, temperature and humidity in winter through two monitoring sites arranged in the pit, and used multivariate statistical methods to analyze the varying characteristics of dust particles within a week under low temperature conditions in pits and mines and their relationship with meteorological factors. The results show that average mass concentration of particulate matter during the detection period of the open-pit mine does not exceed the second-level standard limit of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard(GB 3095—2012), but exceeds the first-level standard limit for some time. Humidity, temperature, wind speed, temperature difference(ie. inversion intensity)are all positively correlated with the concentration of particulate matter, among which the positive correlation of humidity is the most significant. Under low temperature conditions, the significant degree of influence of meteorological factors on the mass concentration of particles at the pit bottom is as follows: humidity>temperature>temperature difference. Small particles are more sensitive to environmental factors.Meteorological factors have a great influence on the diffusion of dust particles, so the winter mining intensity of open-pit mines can be adjusted in conjunction with meteorological conditions to reduce dust pollution at the bottom of the pit.

·