中文责编:晨 兮; 英文责编:之 聿
Institute of Resources and Environment Innovation, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101, Shandong Province, P.R.China
中文责编:晨 兮; 英文责编:之 聿
20世纪70年代以来,急速的工业化和城市化使得全球温暖化和城市暴雨问题日趋严重,城市“看海”现象时有发生.为了减轻暴雨危害和控制面源污染,美国提出最佳管理措施(best management practice, BMP)、低影响开发(low impact development, LID)、绿色基础设施(green infrastructure, GI)等.受美国的影响,英国提出了可持续城市排水系统(sustainable urban drainage systems, SUDS)、澳大利亚提出了水敏感城市设计(water sensitive urban design,WSUD)、日本提出了雨水贮留渗透计划,推行流域综合治理.
Since 1970s, rapid industrialization and urbanization have made global warming and urban stormwater more and more serious, and the phenomenon of “sea views in city” has occurred from time to time.In order to reduce the negative effects of stormwater and control non-point source pollution, the United States of America has put forward some measures such as best management practice(BMP), low impact development(LID)and green infrastructure(GI); Britain proposed sustainable urban drainage system(SUDS); Australia presented water sensitive urban design(WSUD); and Japan made rainwater storage and infiltration plan and implemented integrated watershed management.
The stormwater management and rainwater utilization in foreign countries are basically promoted by local governments or non-governmental organizations, then they are implemented by the central government after forming a certain scale. However, they are promoted by the central government in China. In order to solve the problem of urban environment deterioration, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China(CPC), Xi Jinping, proposed the great strategy of constructing the sponge city through natural storage, natural infiltration, natural purification and natural drainage in December 2013. Since then, the concept of sponge city has been widely spread in China and abroad.
In order to implement the spirit of Xi Jinping's important speech on sponge city, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Housing and Urban-rural Development and Ministry of Water Resources selected a total of 30 pilot cities of sponge city construction in 2015 and 2016. To promote the construction of sponge city, the General Office of the State Council issued the Guiding opinions on promoting the construction of sponge city(Guofaban 〔2015〕75)on October 11, 2015, which required some comprehensive measures such as rainwater infiltration, retention, storage, purification, use and drainage should be taken to minimize the impact of urban construction on the ecological environment during the sponge city construction, and 70% of rainfall should be treated and used locally. More than 20% of the urban built-up areas should achieve the objectives and requirements by 2020; and more than 80% of the urban built-up areas should achieve the objectives and requirements by 2030. After more than 5 years of construction, the sponge city construction pilot work was completed by the end of 2019, and all 30 pilot cities passed the national assessment.
The principle of sponge city is similar to BMP, LID, GI, SUDS and WSUD. By means of the source control and increasingof infiltration, retention, storage and purification capacity of urban underlying surface, the comprehensive management of urban rainwater is carried out to reduce rainwater runoff and pollutants. However, the sponge city has more types and functions than those of LID, WSUD etc., because it requires some facilities to treat the black and odorous water.
Shenzhen, as an important window of China's reform and opening up, has become an international innovative city full of charm, power, vitality and innovation after 40 years of construction. In August 2019, Shenzhen was supported to build a pilot demonstration area of socialism with Chinese characteristics by the Central Committee of CPC and the State Council, and has been becoming the leading city in the construction of the beautiful Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area by implementing the “Two Mountains Theory” that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets. Therefore, the sponge city constructionin Shenzhen should be coordinated with the requirements of the pilot demonstration area of socialism with Chinese characteristics to make Shenzhen colorful as a competitive, innovative and influential global benchmark city.
Since Shenzhen was selected as the second batch of sponge city construction pilot cities in April 2016, efforts have been made to explore the implementation approach to combine sponge city concept with Shenzhen's culture, climate, topography and geological conditions. As successfully completing the pilot work, a lot of technology and management innovation have been carried out, and innovative sponge city facilities have been built.
In order to summarize the experience of sponge city construction, especially the innovation experience in Shenzhen, Journal of Shenzhen University Science and Engineeringis plans to issue the sponge city features and publish the research results of the sponge city construction in two issues. 5 papers are published in this issue, which focus on the experience summarization and experimental research of sponge city; the next issue will address the monitoring of sponge city facilities and case studies.
The paper “!![Sponge city construction and innovation in Shenzhen]”summarizes the experience and lessons of the sponge city construction and introduces the innovative results in Shenzhen, which reflect the research level and innovation ability of sponge city in Shenzhen.
The paper “!![Variation and influencing factors of rainwater retention of green roofs in Shenzhen]” analyzes the variation of the rainwater retention performance of green roof and its influencing factors by continuous monitoring of four different vegetation green roofs in Shenzhen.
The paper “!![Biotoxicity assessment of in-situ simulated stormwater runoff on typical urban roads in Shenzhen]”analyzes the in-situ simulated runoff samples of 12 typical urban roads in Shenzhen, and proposes the combined toxicity is a preferred option whether the road stormwater can be reused safely in the process of sponge city construction.
The paper “!![Simulation analysis of infiltration performance and cause of low impact development in university campus]” simulates the detention effects of green roofs and permeable pavement by storm water management model with geographic information system, taking a campus in Lanzhou as an example.
The paper “Ecological function evaluation and restoration strategy of river in urban built-up areas: a case study of the Dasha River in Shenzhen” builds the river ecosystem function evaluation index system at the reach scale andevaluates the ecological function of the Dasha River.
Finally, I hope that readers who engage in sponge city can pay much attention to the research on biological functions of sponge city, so that sponge city facilities will not breed ceratopogonists and mosquitoes, and absorb harmful microorganisms such as COVID-19, and exchange more research results to improve the urban environment and promote the sound development of sponge city in China.